Archive for November, 2013

The uses and grats theory 21/11/13

November 22, 2013

-It is still unclear that there is any link between the consumption of violent media texts and violent imitative behaviour.

-It is also clear the theory is flawed in that many people do watch violent texts and appear not to be influenced

-Audience is ACTIVE

-The audience uses the text and is not used by them

-The audience uses the text for its own pleasure or gratification.



-Dispite the BBC being more or less in the center ground most people believe it to be left wing- this maybe because right wing papers say so.


Audience Targeting – 22/11/2013

November 22, 2013

Assignment for 5th December: How have your chosen texts been constructed to appeal to their audiences

Key Concepts (MIGRAN)

Media Language

Target (Address)

  • Content
  • Appeal to the product – Uses & Gratifications

How do we know it’s an advert?

  • Length of the advertisement
  • Rapid editing

Genre’s audience

Comedy – Young
Romance – Female
Chick Flick – Teen Girls
Horror – Male 14 – 30
Action – Male 14 – 25

Representation of Ethnicity

November 22, 2013

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Firstly in our lesson of ethnicity we made a list of all the different races around the world from African American to Hispanic and Latino’s and after naming just about all of them we discovered there are three broad terms in ethnicity which are White (although its often forgotten we are our own ethnicity), Black and Asian.

After introducing ourselves to different ethnicities we looked at what it was that made up stereotypes and why they were so commonly used in terms of race. Typical representations of people is what’s known as a stereotype, so in other words it’s the generalisation of a group of people judged by a minority of them. An example of this could be how people believe the majority of Chinese people to be short and dark haired but it’s clear that with such a large population within China not every single one of them is going to be short and have dark hair as everyone’s different. Another example is the Asian (Korean) guy in the walking dead who follows the stereotype of Asians tending to be very clever and thoughtful which is exactly how he’s shown in the TV series. It’s just due to how different ethnic groups are portrayed in society as generations come through because it’s obvious that the generalisation of people gets passed down through different generations. Stereotyping is basically having one person to represent the general public for that ethnicity which in hind sight is a very inaccurate thing to do as common sense should overrule any kind of stereotype there is.

Stereotypes are used as a short cut to meaning as many people tend to understand the very basic stereotype of different ethnicities so it’s the general meaning from it is understood. It’s very common for non-white characters in TV programme’s to be stereotyped although an exception we discussed in class was Luther as the main character is black but it’s not used as a problem with his ethnicity at all, he’s just seen as a basic actor in a drama TV show.

It’s often seen that stereotypes are used in a very negative sense, for example racism and sexism and they are quite oftenly fround upon which isn’t surprising as they could be seen as quite offensive if you was on the recieving end of someone stereotyping your ethnicity.

Types of Distribution

November 22, 2013

18th November

The is two types of distribution-

Blanket distribution– goes everywhere

Platform distribution– opens small and gradually gets bigger for example 12 Years Of Slaves started in 19 theatres and it is now in 14 hundred.

Platform release is usually used for indie films as they are a niche audience, and indie companies cannot afford to go worldwide.

Platform release is also used for the awards season for example the Oscars as the movie must of been released the previous year, so if the film is still in the cinemas it gives it a bigger advantage as it would be more familiar with audiences.

The Oscars as designed to market middle brow films, these are not simply entertainment but also through provoking.

-These films are harder to market than those aimed at mass audience

-Platform release also allows the creation of buzz (positive word of mouth)



-UK box office is similar to US but is smaller.

-UK box office is dominated by Hollywood

-Stars are fading

-People prefer special effects in Hollywood films- big budget means higher production.

-Low budget British films cannot compete except for The Kings Speech and The Inbetweeners.

Assignment– Does the ownership of your main texts effect how it is produced?

Propp & Todorov

November 21, 2013

Narrative, a story which is either fiction or non fiction is what we first looked at in our Media lesson. After finding out the definition we had a brief look into structure of a narrative which basically consists of a cause and an effect chain basically meaning that in a narrative its vital to include a cause as well as an effect. We also looked into how a narrative must follow the rules determined by a genre, for example if its a horror you expect there to be blood, violence and some sort of villain involved which is of course the problem in the film.

Todorov’s theory on narrative has three steps to it. Firstly is the “situation” which is the status quo or in other words the normality of the film which is determined by the genre of the film as you know the genre of the film you would be going to see so the situation wouldn’t come as much of a surprise. Secondly is the disruption which is fairly obvious that it is the problem within the film or tv episode. Lastly in Todorov’s theory is the resolution, clearly being the problem being solved in some way or the problem being neutrally resolved as it was in the episode of Looney Tunes we watched in the lesson. Although apart from the neutral ending the episode we watched of Looney Tunes fitted in to Todarov’s theory almost perfectly.

Propp’s theory is on narrative functions which basically is the idea of most narratives being structured like fairy tales. The way it is done is by having the three main, most important characters; Hero, which resolves the problem. A villain, which creates the problem and a victim of the problem which is in some cases a princess of some sort. You realise a narrative function is in most narrative stories. Although it is important to get accross that functions are not necessarily characters as well as the fact characters can inhabit more than one function at a time, for example a victim/hero.

Audience Theory – 19/11/13

November 21, 2013

19TH November 2013

A2 Media Studies – Audience Theory

Audience > Targeted

                  > Effects/Uses and Gratifications

                  > Readings > Preferred

                                       > Negotiated

                                       > Oppositional

There are three theories of audience that we can apply to help us come to a better understanding about the relationship between texts and audience.

  1. The Effects Model or The Hypodermic Model (E.g. Gaming is thought to have an effect on people, usually younger boys behaviour, such as Grand Theft Auto).
  2. The Uses and Gratifications Model. (Personal Identity – Information – Entertainment – Social Identity)
  3. Reception Theory.
  • 1. The Effects Model

–          The consumption of media texts has an effect or influence upon the audience.

–          It is normally considered that this effect is negative.

–          Audiences are passive and powerless.

This model is also known as The Hypodermic Model.

–          Messages in the media are injected to the audience by the powerful syringe like media.

–          The audience is powerless to resist.

–          The media works like a drug and the audience is addicted.

–          It is often vulnerable people who often need protection from the violent media

Key evidence:

The Bobo doll experiment: a very controversial piece of media that apparently proved that children copy violent behaviour. An example is the film Childs Play 3 (Seed of Chucky) caused the murder of James Bulger in 1993.

1980’s – Videotapes.

1990’s – Videogames.

2000’s – Internet – A moral panic.

Moral Panic: an instance of public anxiety or alarm in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society.

TV Platforms – 15/10/13

November 21, 2013

15th October 2013.

TV Platforms

Product > Distribution > Exhibition (audience)

1)      Terrestrial: aerial (digital)

Freeview à 50 channels, 4 HD Channels, 24 Radio Channels.

2)      Cable/Satellite TV

You view à Talk Talk: Subscribe and get the box free or pay for the box on its own.

Gives you more channels, catch up channels (7) and Pay TV (TV you pay to watch).

3)      Virgin media

TV, broadband and mobile: subscribe monthly > 4 different packages to suit different people.

4)      Apple TV

Offers a wide variety of channels, including iTunes, American sport channels, sky news and Netflix > Choose what you want to watch and when (like catch-up)  but doesn’t include live channels, excluding rare online occasions from channels in America.

5)      Sky anytime

Allows you to watch programmes when your elsewhere, as well as V.O.D (Video on Demand) an alternative to catch-up.

6)      Gaming consoles e.g. Xbox, PS3

Provides catch up TV, plays Blu-ray, resembles Apple TV.

Netflix/Love film > available on tablets and online.


Spent $90M on its original series: House of cards.

This programme was exclusive to Netflix for 9 months and was then sold to other TV Platforms.

All episodes were released and available to watch at the same time, where conventional TV would usually provide one episode per week.

The releasing of several episodes together is called binge viewing.

Other platforms

  • DVD
  • Golden Oldie Channels (such as Dave)

–          As programmes get older they can be sold to different platforms at increasingly different prices. New programmes can be sold at a premium.

The Walking Dead Episode 4 Sterotype 13.11.13

November 18, 2013

The Walking Dead Episode 4- Vatos

In The Walking Dead the use of stereotypes for Hispanic males is shown through the use of tattoos and chains to represent a gang. They use a mix of Spanish and English when they talk which only reinforces the stereotype surrounding the Hispanic community. In order for this group to survive they have to play to the stereotype.

Representation: Confirm or Challenge

This representation of Hispanic males is changed later on in the episode when we see them caring for the old and see them acting in a nonviolent way. This challenges what we saw before because the change of violence to caring when they were just ready to kill Rick and his friends in the Mexican standoff.

Age: Old Women walks into Mexican standoff, they stop and listen to her. She shows she is strong; she doesn’t listen to the males to go back. What the old women does is take away all of the tension.

13th November- Film Platforms

November 18, 2013

1) Cinema

2) DVD/ Bluray – Retail
– Rental

Downloads, eg. Itunes/Apple TV  – Retail
– Rental

Normally both retail and rental but during Christmas period only retail

Normally 4 months until available for rent or retail
– occasionally longer eg. Iron Man 3 (waited to release at Christmas- 6 months after cinema)

3) Pay TV- SkyStore (can be available same time as stage 2)
– usually 6-12 months after cinema release
– Pacific Rim didn’t do as well as expected so on Pay TV earlier

4) Netflix/ LoveFilm – around 12 months after cinema

Subscription – Sky Movies etc.

5) ‘Free to air’ Tv – 2 years

A Field in England was released on  free TV (Film4), DVD and video-on-demand at the same time it was released in the cinema

BBC films for example, miss out stages 3 + 4

BodyHeat Key Scenes/Characters

November 18, 2013

BodyHeat – NeoNoir

Key Scene 1 – 7 Minutes into the film

Colour red is used to represent aspects such as, Danger, Heat and Passion.

Self Consciously recreates classic Noir style

Matty Walker

Immoral (Murder)

Brilliant (Clever)



“You’re not too smart are you? I like that in a man” – Hints at her mysterious ways



Bit Stupid/Naive

Less Charming (Womeniser)

80’s audiences were more tolerant of floored protagonists.

Sympathetic towards Ned because he has no idea what he’s getting into.

BodyHeat is aimed at adult audiences – 18 Certificate

The heat is necessary, the psychological motivation makes the situation more convincing.

Key Scene 2 – 37 minutes

Edmond asks Ned to join them to break suspicion.

Insults Ned indirectly

Matty is Edmonds possession

Edmond Walker is a Crook/Criminal – He does what’s necessary for his line of work, it’s at that point that Ned decides to do what is necessary, as he is now going to kill Edmond.

Key Scene 3 – 55 minutes

The Murder scene

The weapons in the scene are on show (Gun & Wooden plank) But although it is an 18 cerificate, the murder is not shown, the graphic sounds and brutal blows are convincing enough, Matty’s reaction proves the brutality of it, if we witnessed Ned murdering Edmond in such a brutal way, we’d feel less sympathetic towards him.