Author Archive

Defining Audiences

January 27, 2014


Professional Workers

B White Collar Workers                MIDDLE CLASS

C1 Skilled Manual Workers

C2 Skilled Manual

D Semi-Skilled Manual                  WORKING CLASS                

E Unskilled Manual

  • Social class is based upon occupation
  • Mass and Niche audiences

Mass: Everyone                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Niche: A clearly targeted group eg) Teens, Children, 60+



Times(Conservative)                   QUALITY (hard news). ABC1




Daily Mail(Conservative)              MID MARKET (mixtures). BC1C2

The Sun(Conservative)

Star(Conservative)                       RED TOPS (soft news). C2DE



Left Wing:

  • Progressive
  • Modernity
  • People
  • Equality
  • Public
  • Poor

Right Wing:

  • Conservative
  • Traditional
  • Business
  • Elite
  • Private
  • Rich

Texts aimed at everyone are rare.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                eg) Hollywood films (Disney), Family films or Coronation Street.

Most texts are aimed at niches because they are easier to target.

Anything based on advertising usually targets ABC1’s; gets more disposable income.

3 broad areas for targeting audiences

  • Age
  • Class
  • Gender

Using Todorov and Propp

October 8, 2013

Todorov and Propp can be used to analyse the narrative of a given text.

Todorov uses the principle that every text has a situation, disruption and a resolution. Propp uses narrative functions and states that every text will have a hero, villain and victim. These however do not have to be characters.

For example, if you apply Todorov and Propp to Titanic you see that the:

  • Situation is that everyone is on the Titanic cruise
  • Disruption is the sinking ship
  • Resolution is that some of the passengers survive
  • Hero is the lifeboats
  • Villain is the Iceberg
  • Victims are the passengers

Titanic is based on true events but if you look at the romantic story line of the film you see that Jack is the hero because he saves Rose, who is therefore the victim while Caledon is the villain who tries to come between Jack and Rose’s relationship.


  • Attractive male
  • Working Class

                                                                                              >> This portrays that being a higher social class doesn’t make you a better person, it in fact probably makes you a                                                                                                      worse person; the hero of the film is from a low social class.


  • Sly
  • Coward
  • Upperclass

Todorov and Propp can also be applied to advertisements such as this Maybelline foundation  advert:

Here we can see that the:

  • Situation is daily life
  • Disruption is having ‘bad’ skin
  • Resolution is having the appearance of good skin
  • Hero is the product
  • Villain is the skin
  • Victim is young women

Another example is this Bold Washing Powder advert:

In this the:

  • Situation is Fixing his car
  • Disruption is having dirty clothes
  • Resolution is getting clean clothes
  •  Hero is the Bold washing powder
  • Villain is the dirt
  • Victim is the boy

Helper: Helps the hero

What to expect from Horror

September 23, 2013

Typical things you can expect a horror film to be:
-Have tense music
-Low key lighting
-An ugly/scary villain
-Suspense throughout
-Atonal music
(Sequence is 4:35 – 10:40)

-The tense music tells us that something bad is going to happen.
-Terrible things happening in an ordinary setting is gripping.
-Shocking when man gets ran over by the ambulance.
-Shallow depth of field adds suspense; can see something but not sure what.

Sub genres of horror: eg. Zombie

Slasher: Psychopath terrorises small community or group of friends.
Haunted: Restless spirits need exorcising from building.