Author Archive

AS Media Studies – The “Readings” of a Text

January 30, 2014

The “Readings” of a Text

The “readings” of a text are what an audience would say about a particular text (e.g. Print advert, TV show, etc).

There are 3 types of “readings” when studying a text:

Preferred Readings – What the text wants the audience to do.

Negociated Readings – You accept the message of the text, but you don’t believe that it is appropriate to yourself.

Oppositional Readings – You don’t accept the Preferred Readings of the text.

Preferred Readings are normally straightforward to understand.

Oppositional Readings are the 2nd easiest to understand.

Think Negociated Readings last.

The Readings stated above and the audience’s response are very similar.

The Readings for this Sony Ericsson print advert:

Preferred Readings –

Men can say “Yes! I can see all the goals on my phone!”

The text wants us to feel sorry for the women, given that they are being ignored by the men, who are so focused on watching the goals.

We are attracted to the product, because of the Cover Line “Win £100,000 and watch all the goals first with Xperia”.

Oppositional Readings –

The women are thinking “This product isn’t for me”.

There is also clear emphasis that this product also isn’t suited to non-football fans.

Negociated Readings –

The women are thinking “Great (!) He’s focusing more on the sport than he is on me!”.

The audience could think that, because this product is relying on giveaways and prizes, it could be a “dodgy” product. In other words, it isn’t selling its looks. Its selling the prizes.

The Readings for “Vatos” (Series 1, Episode 4 of “The Walking Dead”)

Preferred Readings –

This text makes us feel sympathetic towards the characters who have lost their loved ones due to the Zombie attack.

Be careful how you racially stereotype groups of people. In this case, there is a stereotype that “all Hispanic males are part of gangs”. However, in “Vatos”, the gang turn out to be guarding a hidden nursing home in a warehouse.

The men in this episode need to save the children. This reinforces the stereotype that men are the dominant and stronger gender, and that they are the women’s “knight in shining armour”.

Oppositional Readings –

All the stereotypes in this episode are correctly presented.

Feminists would say that the women don’t need saving by the men. This opposes the stereotype mentioned above. This stereotype is also sexist against women.

Negociated Readings – 

The attack that happens at the end of the episode is seen as “sad but contrived”. In other words, this attack is a sad occasion, but the audience knew that it was going to happen.


AS Media Studies (18/10/13) – Feminism

October 24, 2013


Feminism is where women and men both believe that the two genders should be equal in society.

This is of course not true in modern society, due to the high amount of sexism in the televised Media.

Feminists believe that there are two factors that make men the superior gender in society:

Pay (i.e. ‘men get paid more than women when they do the same job’).

Opportunity (i.e. ‘men get the better jobs’).

UK Feminista

UK Feminista is an organisation (founded in 2010) that involves both men and women who campaign for equality between the two genders in society. (The link to their Website –

They believe that, if the genders were equal in society, economics and politics, the word would be a better place for all.

In 2010, they made a video that explained their views about sexism in society today, and what they plan to do to stop sexism in society. (Here is the link to this video –

Their Protest Against Sexism

This video presents the idea that these campaigners are :

– Passionate about what they believe in and what they are campaigning for.

Determined to ‘make a difference’ in society.

– Independent in what they are campaigning for (e.g. the ‘leader’ of the campaign has a megaphone to ‘spur on’ and ‘encourage’ her fellow campaigners to protest).

– ‘Powerful’ (In such a way that they will not give up in their ‘quest’ to have equality in society).

– Collective (i.e. they are a group that share one belief/interest. In this case, equality between genders).

(Note: ‘Determination’, ‘Independent’ and ‘Powerful’ are all characteristics that males are represented as having).

This video also presents the idea that women are ‘victims’ of sexism in society. This is why women are ‘taking action’ against sexism, and they campaign to stop sexism in society and in the televised Media.

AS Media Studies – Analysing Posters

September 27, 2013

Analysing Film Posters

When producing a film poster, it is very important to grab the target audience’s attention.

To achieve this, film posters use the pneumonic AIDA:

A is for ‘Attention’. Grabbing the attention of the target audience.

I is for ‘Interest’. The target audience are interested in the poster, and therefore the film itself.

D is for ‘Desire’. The target audience will want to go see the newly-released film, because of the poster.

A is for ‘Action’. The target audience actually going to the cinema to see the film.

If a poster doesn’t use AIDA, then no one will be engaged by its unique and often enticing features.

Conventions of a Film Poster

Here are some typical features that appear on a film poster:

‘Z pattern’. The composition of a poster, which refers to an invisible ‘Z’ going across the poster.

‘Rule of Thirds’. Used as a way of obtaining accurate composition. The poster will use the Rule of Thirds to have a correct layout.

‘Tagline’. The tagline of a poster is a way of engaging the audience in the film. For example, the tagline for the 1977 film ‘Star Wars’ is ‘A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away…’.

‘Narrative image(s)’. Image(s) that communicate the general synopsis of the film to the audience. Narrative image(s) are an example of NVC (Non-Verbal Communication).

‘Stars’. The actors/actresses who are going to appear in the film.

‘Genre’. The type of film that is being advertised as a poster. The genre of the film is usually revealed by the use of iconography (associated signs and sounds e.g. blood – horror, guns – action).

Analysis of the ‘Cache’ (‘Hidden’ in French’) Poster

1. The blood streak is a clear use of ‘horror’ iconography.

2. The poster follows the Z pattern. The top horizontal part of the ‘Z’ (going from top right to top left) goes across the stars’ names. The diagonal part of the ‘Z’ (going down from top right to bottom left) goes across the narrative image and the title. Finally, the bottom horizontal part of the ‘Z’ (going from bottom right to bottom left) goes across the small print at the bottom.

3. The white background is symbolised as being ‘pure’, but the blood streak is seen to ‘disturb’ this ‘pureness’.

4. The awards section of the poster emphasizes that the film is aimed at a niche market (specific audience) and it is also aimed at an arthouse film audience.

Analysis of the ‘The Grudge’ Poster

1. The use of the word ‘it’ in the tagline suggests that the ‘thing’ is being referred to as a monster. This is because there is no reference to ‘it’ being human.

2. The red colour in the title suggests that the film has a horror element to it.

3. The stars name is above he title. This suggests that the star is famous. However, because the name is in a small font, there is a suggestion that the star isn’t as famous as other Hollywood stars.

4. This poster has a good composition to it, due to it using the Rule of Thirds.

5. The narrative image is a Japanese monster. A Japanese monster is a typical feature of Japanese horror.

Thank you for taking your time to read this blog.