Author Archive

Regulation in television – Blog 30/01/2014, Robert Gray

February 10, 2014

Regulation in television


Watershed -> Adults past 9pm

More explicit adult material tends to be shows later around 10:30. However it is still allowed after the watershed.

The parental lock that some service providers use works as a watershed.

At the start of some programs and in the guide, offers consumer advice on programs.

This is also the case for advertising.

OFCOM – The independent regulator. (state regulator)

Specification of broadcast code.

Provides mandatory broadcast rules.

This covers :

  • Protection of under 18’s  (The law)
  • Harm and offence (no obscene)
  • Crime (glorification)
  • Religion (Blasphemy)
  • Sponsorship (limit what can be shown )
  • Elections (Has to be impartial)
  • Privacy (faces blurred & schools children’s feet shown)

Remember : All TV companies need a licence to broadcast.


For wider information see pages 44-53, Required.

Educate, inform as well as entertain.

BBC – Act as a cultural (e.g. Glastonbury ) moral (crime watch) and educative force.

ITV – They also have so PSB requirements however remember a commercial channels aim is maximise revenues and profits.

Channel 4 – Was set up to cater for minorities.

Their legal duty to:

  1. Educate, inform as well as entertain.
  2. Appeal to tastes not catered for by ITV.
  3. Encourage diversity and originality.

Channel 4 is no longer like it was but still does cater for minorities e.g. “The undateables”

Arguments for PSB:

  • BBC is able to put on niche programs, due to the licence fee otherwise certain programs would disappear e.g. The opera
  • Quality rather than ratings
  • Maintain principle of enlightened democracy
  • Continue the idea of a shared experience

Arguments against PSB:

  • Out dated
  • Irrelevant
  • Elitist
  • Restricts competition which could bring increased choice and ‘quality’


This offers:

  1. Protection for harmful exposure (remember – the effects debate)
  2. Infringement of privacy
  3. Unfair treatment
  4. People can complain – the right to defend themselves.

They can :

  • Direct a broadcaster not to repeat programs and advertisements
  • Direct to publish a correction
  • It can fine, shorten or revoke.

Ofcom have a compliance officer (lawyers)

The most recent code of broadcasting is from 2009.

It also operates taking this into account:

The human rights act à We have a right to know.

The BBC is regulated by Ofcom however it is also regulated by the BBC trust.

Relevant information

Key word: Adjunctions

Majestic TV – fined for breaking code (£12,500) – the debate, is this enough?



Lesson – 24/10/2013 Media Studies Blog – Robert Gray

November 4, 2013


WBCC – Window of creative Competition (2003)

  • 25% of original programmes on BBC must be independent

Background Knowledge

The apprentice was made by Fremantle Uk Who is owned by RTL GP they are owned by Bertelsmann – Who also own many other companies including a magazine, which may do an article on the apprentice.

There are 25 different versions of The Apprentice – one way to tell it is successful.

You could say The Apprentice is the perfect PSB Programme as it is:

  • Informative
  • Entertaining

The international programmes for each country allows them to be culturally specific – therefore be more successful in the country shown – a good example of globalisation.

Key term – GLOCAL



Scott and Bailey

–          Red production (successful for 25 years)

–          Still going now

–          The programme its self is on its 3rd series which is also a measure of success

Lesson – 16/09/2013 Media Studies Blog – Robert Gray

September 27, 2013


–          Ill manors is a British genre film which was initially released on May 30th , 2012, then on June 6th, 2012.

Marketing techniques for Ill manors

Posters – There were 8 different kinds of posters here are some examples:


Within the posters there were many marketing techniques such as the gun, which could represent action in the film directing it at 16-30 year old males.

Cross promotion – As a famous music artist Ben Drew aka. (Plan B) could easily cross promote his film. Close to the release of the film he released the album “ill manors”

The album included a lot of songs from the actual film, and singles in which their videos included characters from the film – however there was no actual footage from the film which was unusual.

Below is an example of the music video:

This album release can also be used as part of the publicity circus – as plan B appeared on many chat shows etc… to promote both the film and the album.

Another interesting point about this film is that the trailer:

this was only released a month before it came out – if we compare this to inception where a teaser trailer was released about a year before, you can see that inception was trying to create a “buzz” for the film and attract audiences.  Also within the trailer it was rapid montage this did not give a clear idea of the film, this was a weak point of the trailer.

Social media advertising was also a key element in in marketing the film:

Here we see Facebook, Twitter and an official website.

When thinking about defining the audience remember

*Genre can include and exclude at the same time*

When applying this to ill manors, you could say the film was aimed at 16-30 males due to the appearance of guns, and attractive women in the trailer; however you could also say it was aimed at a niche audience due to the complex storyline “We are all products of our environment”.


Take the BBC marketing for the apprentice:

The BBC has a huge core audience, and because they own the channel it doesn’t cost them to advertise, they can put the advert for the apprentice in-between their shows.

This is why they are in the strong position – they have a wide variety of audience and the power to easily advertise whenever they want.


They had two tasks:

  1. To get people to know about it.
  2. Get these people to watch it.

The fear was shown across 4 days, so they needed to grab the audience quickly.

Because it was shown across 4 days this meant there was less marketing opportunities, as they couldn’t advertise for a whole week until the next episode as they may usually do., it was also hard for them to promote catch up as people may not have enough free time to catch up on a day-to-day basis.