Archive for the ‘A2 Media’ Category

Globalisation – TV 11.02.14/13.02.14

February 25, 2014

TV is a national industry rather than a global industry such as film
e.g. the BBC makes films for just this country

The UK in unusual because most of our programmes are British. In other places in the world most programmes are from other countries.

Money allows America to dominate the film market, yet it doesn’t dominate the TV market because TV is fnded by advitisers (ITV, C4, etc) and by the public through the TV lisence (BBC)

Over 50% of the schedulings in South America, Africa, and Asia are imports, which are mostly American.

America spends a lot of money making programmes yet sells them cheaply to poorer countries so they can still watch them. They can afford to do this because they already make a profit from selling the programmes in America.

The Good Wife, an American TV series was sold to the British, niche channel, More 4 cheaper than it would of sold to any other channel because it doesn’t have as many viewers and wouldn’t pay more for it.

National culture is marginalised
Western culture is prominant

Consumerism (Earning and spending money) seems normal for our culture as we have grown up with it. If everyone aspires to spend money we’ll run out of resources which is bad for the environment.

Dallas – an American TV series about oil rich Texans
America – Celebrates wealth
Africa – Money can rescue people (Solve problems)
Israel – Unhappy Americans (Money=unhappy)

Different cultures have different readings

Israel sees money as not that important, where as Africa sees it as very important because it is a country with a lot of poverty

US programmes are rarely the most popular

Globalisation may be homogensising (Making the same) but also different.

GLOCAL – Global and local
e.g. McDonalds have adapted to different cultures

MTV Case study
Viacom owns MTV
MTV has changed because you can watch videos online now (YouTube) so there is no longer a need for it to be the primary content.

MTV Asia
-Success of American products in Asia created demand for more American products
-MTV Asia said that 20% of the music videos would be Asian, but actually only 10% were. These 10% (Bangcok Jam) were played at midnight when the audience would be a lot smaller.
-Local bands that were put on MTV Asia played Western music

“MTV Asia reinforces globalisation and abandonment of traditional cultures and languages”


Regulation in television – Blog 30/01/2014, Robert Gray

February 10, 2014

Regulation in television


Watershed -> Adults past 9pm

More explicit adult material tends to be shows later around 10:30. However it is still allowed after the watershed.

The parental lock that some service providers use works as a watershed.

At the start of some programs and in the guide, offers consumer advice on programs.

This is also the case for advertising.

OFCOM – The independent regulator. (state regulator)

Specification of broadcast code.

Provides mandatory broadcast rules.

This covers :

  • Protection of under 18’s  (The law)
  • Harm and offence (no obscene)
  • Crime (glorification)
  • Religion (Blasphemy)
  • Sponsorship (limit what can be shown )
  • Elections (Has to be impartial)
  • Privacy (faces blurred & schools children’s feet shown)

Remember : All TV companies need a licence to broadcast.


For wider information see pages 44-53, Required.

Educate, inform as well as entertain.

BBC – Act as a cultural (e.g. Glastonbury ) moral (crime watch) and educative force.

ITV – They also have so PSB requirements however remember a commercial channels aim is maximise revenues and profits.

Channel 4 – Was set up to cater for minorities.

Their legal duty to:

  1. Educate, inform as well as entertain.
  2. Appeal to tastes not catered for by ITV.
  3. Encourage diversity and originality.

Channel 4 is no longer like it was but still does cater for minorities e.g. “The undateables”

Arguments for PSB:

  • BBC is able to put on niche programs, due to the licence fee otherwise certain programs would disappear e.g. The opera
  • Quality rather than ratings
  • Maintain principle of enlightened democracy
  • Continue the idea of a shared experience

Arguments against PSB:

  • Out dated
  • Irrelevant
  • Elitist
  • Restricts competition which could bring increased choice and ‘quality’


This offers:

  1. Protection for harmful exposure (remember – the effects debate)
  2. Infringement of privacy
  3. Unfair treatment
  4. People can complain – the right to defend themselves.

They can :

  • Direct a broadcaster not to repeat programs and advertisements
  • Direct to publish a correction
  • It can fine, shorten or revoke.

Ofcom have a compliance officer (lawyers)

The most recent code of broadcasting is from 2009.

It also operates taking this into account:

The human rights act à We have a right to know.

The BBC is regulated by Ofcom however it is also regulated by the BBC trust.

Relevant information

Key word: Adjunctions

Majestic TV – fined for breaking code (£12,500) – the debate, is this enough?


Film Regulation

February 10, 2014

Key trend over time- Liberalisation and rationalisation


Moralistic paternalism          ————————>          Bureaucratic protectionism

Unwritten rules                                                                                      Published guidelines

Shared values                                                                                          Public consultation

Rigid moral code                                                                                   Child protection

“We know what’s best for you”


BBFC (British Board of Film Censorship) was set up to avoid government censorship of the film industry.

If the industry regulates itself, then it controls regulation.

BBFC established ———> Prohibits “indecorous, ambiguous and irreverent titles”                                          Introduction of  “U”, “A” and “H” symbols

|                                                        as well as “unnecessary exhibition of under-clothing” , ect.                              |

|                                                                                                                                                                                                               |

1912 ———————————-1920’s———————————————————————–1930’s—————————————1940’s

Pre-war Victorian values                                                                                                                                                     Inter-war years: General strike, Depression and decline of the Empire

In the USA- Production code

“Law of compensating values”- Bad guys must be punished
An example of the strictness of regulation at the time is the 1953 film “The Wild One”. The film was banned for 14 years by the BBFC, until being given an “X” rating in 1967.

You can watch an excerpt of the film here-

By today’s standards the idea this film could be banned is laughable considering how tame it is in our modern context. However the main character portrayed by Marlon Brando acts in a way which at the time would have been unacceptable, yet still walks away at the end- which in accordance with the “law of compensating values”, is unacceptable.


Censorship changes

1951- “X” category introduced—————–> “The Wild One” release delayed for 14 years for                                              “X” raised to 18

|                                                                                                “spectacle of unbridled hooliganism”                                                               |

|                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |


Post-war prosperity                                               Baby-boomers come of age               Lady Chatterley’s                   The dream sours,

and birth of the teenager                                     “sexual and social liberation”             lover trial                                  economic unrest

BBFC becomes “British Board of Film Classification

Guidelines for consumers


1984 Video Recordings Act

-Videos were not required to be certified

-“Video nasties” caused tabloid moral panic (e.g. “Driller Killer” and “The Evil Dead”)

1990’s- very rare for films to be cut (as it is for today)


BBFC vision statement-

Heavily entrenched in the effects debate- which has no evidence to support it.


70’s- Change over between moralistic paternalism and Bureaucratic protectionism. BBFC were behind the times, most censored decade, 26.7% of films cut, 3.2% banned outright.

Legal Framework

-Video recordings act 1984-Requires BBFC to have special regard for any harm to those likely to view a video

-Cinematograph films (animals) act 1937- Illegal to show any cruelty to animals

-Protection of children act 1978- Illegal to show indecent photographs of anyone under 18

-Obscene publications act 1959- Illegal to show a work that is obscene with tendency to “deprave and corrupt” a significant portion of the audience.

At 18 rating, they try to allow everything with exception to that which is illegal, e.g. sexual abuse of Michelle in “Ill Manors” is allowed because it is condemned by the film, if it were portrayed positively, the film would be banned.

Globalisation & The Film Industry

February 10, 2014

Globalisation & the film industry
Globalisation is the idea that business becomes global e.g. McDonalds.
Global Village: breaking down borders
Imperialism- The physical invasion of other countries to build an empire. Cultural Imperialism- Invading other countries with culture. The dominance of one culture over another.
Culture: values of a nation e.g. the American dream (working hard makes you successful) the myth that America is an equal society. Capitalism: It’s right for a business to make profit. Australia and New Zealand play cricket because we invaded them. This is an example of cultural imperialism.
Cultural Imperialism and the Media
News Corp owns 20th Century Fox. They sell their products globally to make more profit. E.g. Sony (Japanese company) own Colombia but don’t only make Japanese films as it would have a smaller market. (Similar to Bertelsmann who are German) The apprentice (American show) is shown in 26 countries which is an example of globalisation.
A vast amount of Hollywood films present America in a positive light. 12 years a slave wasn’t very popular in America because it presented Americans in a negative light.
American films:
Russia 8/10
Japan 4/10
East Africa 10/10
America makes the most expensive films and has the biggest global stars. Hollywood specialises in easy-to-understand narratives to attract different cultures. America has the largest home market which enables them to sell their films more cheaply world-wide. The British film industry can’t compete with Hollywood. Cultural Imperialism works both in the democratic world and in the west. Because of American dominance, their culture is second for many countries around the world.


January 27, 2014

Commodity – Product

-Stars are a commodity as they are been sold.

-Women pose to emphasize their body and sexiness

-Sexy Soap Stars – publicity Circus, TV choice (Daz), Partners (Public eye), Stars (value of commodity), Metro (Fills a page)

-Celebrity Endorsement – direct address (to stay in public eye)

Defining Audiences

January 27, 2014


Professional Workers

B White Collar Workers                MIDDLE CLASS

C1 Skilled Manual Workers

C2 Skilled Manual

D Semi-Skilled Manual                  WORKING CLASS                

E Unskilled Manual

  • Social class is based upon occupation
  • Mass and Niche audiences

Mass: Everyone                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Niche: A clearly targeted group eg) Teens, Children, 60+



Times(Conservative)                   QUALITY (hard news). ABC1




Daily Mail(Conservative)              MID MARKET (mixtures). BC1C2

The Sun(Conservative)

Star(Conservative)                       RED TOPS (soft news). C2DE



Left Wing:

  • Progressive
  • Modernity
  • People
  • Equality
  • Public
  • Poor

Right Wing:

  • Conservative
  • Traditional
  • Business
  • Elite
  • Private
  • Rich

Texts aimed at everyone are rare.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                eg) Hollywood films (Disney), Family films or Coronation Street.

Most texts are aimed at niches because they are easier to target.

Anything based on advertising usually targets ABC1’s; gets more disposable income.

3 broad areas for targeting audiences

  • Age
  • Class
  • Gender

The uses and grats theory 21/11/13

November 22, 2013

-It is still unclear that there is any link between the consumption of violent media texts and violent imitative behaviour.

-It is also clear the theory is flawed in that many people do watch violent texts and appear not to be influenced

-Audience is ACTIVE

-The audience uses the text and is not used by them

-The audience uses the text for its own pleasure or gratification.



-Dispite the BBC being more or less in the center ground most people believe it to be left wing- this maybe because right wing papers say so.

Audience Targeting – 22/11/2013

November 22, 2013

Assignment for 5th December: How have your chosen texts been constructed to appeal to their audiences

Key Concepts (MIGRAN)

Media Language

Target (Address)

  • Content
  • Appeal to the product – Uses & Gratifications

How do we know it’s an advert?

  • Length of the advertisement
  • Rapid editing

Genre’s audience

Comedy – Young
Romance – Female
Chick Flick – Teen Girls
Horror – Male 14 – 30
Action – Male 14 – 25

Types of Distribution

November 22, 2013

18th November

The is two types of distribution-

Blanket distribution– goes everywhere

Platform distribution– opens small and gradually gets bigger for example 12 Years Of Slaves started in 19 theatres and it is now in 14 hundred.

Platform release is usually used for indie films as they are a niche audience, and indie companies cannot afford to go worldwide.

Platform release is also used for the awards season for example the Oscars as the movie must of been released the previous year, so if the film is still in the cinemas it gives it a bigger advantage as it would be more familiar with audiences.

The Oscars as designed to market middle brow films, these are not simply entertainment but also through provoking.

-These films are harder to market than those aimed at mass audience

-Platform release also allows the creation of buzz (positive word of mouth)



-UK box office is similar to US but is smaller.

-UK box office is dominated by Hollywood

-Stars are fading

-People prefer special effects in Hollywood films- big budget means higher production.

-Low budget British films cannot compete except for The Kings Speech and The Inbetweeners.

Assignment– Does the ownership of your main texts effect how it is produced?

Audience Theory – 19/11/13

November 21, 2013

19TH November 2013

A2 Media Studies – Audience Theory

Audience > Targeted

                  > Effects/Uses and Gratifications

                  > Readings > Preferred

                                       > Negotiated

                                       > Oppositional

There are three theories of audience that we can apply to help us come to a better understanding about the relationship between texts and audience.

  1. The Effects Model or The Hypodermic Model (E.g. Gaming is thought to have an effect on people, usually younger boys behaviour, such as Grand Theft Auto).
  2. The Uses and Gratifications Model. (Personal Identity – Information – Entertainment – Social Identity)
  3. Reception Theory.
  • 1. The Effects Model

–          The consumption of media texts has an effect or influence upon the audience.

–          It is normally considered that this effect is negative.

–          Audiences are passive and powerless.

This model is also known as The Hypodermic Model.

–          Messages in the media are injected to the audience by the powerful syringe like media.

–          The audience is powerless to resist.

–          The media works like a drug and the audience is addicted.

–          It is often vulnerable people who often need protection from the violent media

Key evidence:

The Bobo doll experiment: a very controversial piece of media that apparently proved that children copy violent behaviour. An example is the film Childs Play 3 (Seed of Chucky) caused the murder of James Bulger in 1993.

1980’s – Videotapes.

1990’s – Videogames.

2000’s – Internet – A moral panic.

Moral Panic: an instance of public anxiety or alarm in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society.