Posts Tagged ‘audience’

Uses and Gratification

February 10, 2014

Personal identity:
Social interactions

Personal identity:
-empathy knowing how a character feels.
-Recognized expression
-how things have change and how we can relate to that
-“what would I do in that situation”
Information: News, advertisements, non-fiction, documentaries
Entertainment: escapism, humour, excitement, fear

Social interaction: where you talk about the text etc


AS Media Studies – The “Readings” of a Text

January 30, 2014

The “Readings” of a Text

The “readings” of a text are what an audience would say about a particular text (e.g. Print advert, TV show, etc).

There are 3 types of “readings” when studying a text:

Preferred Readings – What the text wants the audience to do.

Negociated Readings – You accept the message of the text, but you don’t believe that it is appropriate to yourself.

Oppositional Readings – You don’t accept the Preferred Readings of the text.

Preferred Readings are normally straightforward to understand.

Oppositional Readings are the 2nd easiest to understand.

Think Negociated Readings last.

The Readings stated above and the audience’s response are very similar.

The Readings for this Sony Ericsson print advert:

Preferred Readings –

Men can say “Yes! I can see all the goals on my phone!”

The text wants us to feel sorry for the women, given that they are being ignored by the men, who are so focused on watching the goals.

We are attracted to the product, because of the Cover Line “Win £100,000 and watch all the goals first with Xperia”.

Oppositional Readings –

The women are thinking “This product isn’t for me”.

There is also clear emphasis that this product also isn’t suited to non-football fans.

Negociated Readings –

The women are thinking “Great (!) He’s focusing more on the sport than he is on me!”.

The audience could think that, because this product is relying on giveaways and prizes, it could be a “dodgy” product. In other words, it isn’t selling its looks. Its selling the prizes.

The Readings for “Vatos” (Series 1, Episode 4 of “The Walking Dead”)

Preferred Readings –

This text makes us feel sympathetic towards the characters who have lost their loved ones due to the Zombie attack.

Be careful how you racially stereotype groups of people. In this case, there is a stereotype that “all Hispanic males are part of gangs”. However, in “Vatos”, the gang turn out to be guarding a hidden nursing home in a warehouse.

The men in this episode need to save the children. This reinforces the stereotype that men are the dominant and stronger gender, and that they are the women’s “knight in shining armour”.

Oppositional Readings –

All the stereotypes in this episode are correctly presented.

Feminists would say that the women don’t need saving by the men. This opposes the stereotype mentioned above. This stereotype is also sexist against women.

Negociated Readings – 

The attack that happens at the end of the episode is seen as “sad but contrived”. In other words, this attack is a sad occasion, but the audience knew that it was going to happen.

Defining Audiences

January 27, 2014


Professional Workers

B White Collar Workers                MIDDLE CLASS

C1 Skilled Manual Workers

C2 Skilled Manual

D Semi-Skilled Manual                  WORKING CLASS                

E Unskilled Manual

  • Social class is based upon occupation
  • Mass and Niche audiences

Mass: Everyone                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Niche: A clearly targeted group eg) Teens, Children, 60+



Times(Conservative)                   QUALITY (hard news). ABC1




Daily Mail(Conservative)              MID MARKET (mixtures). BC1C2

The Sun(Conservative)

Star(Conservative)                       RED TOPS (soft news). C2DE



Left Wing:

  • Progressive
  • Modernity
  • People
  • Equality
  • Public
  • Poor

Right Wing:

  • Conservative
  • Traditional
  • Business
  • Elite
  • Private
  • Rich

Texts aimed at everyone are rare.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                eg) Hollywood films (Disney), Family films or Coronation Street.

Most texts are aimed at niches because they are easier to target.

Anything based on advertising usually targets ABC1’s; gets more disposable income.

3 broad areas for targeting audiences

  • Age
  • Class
  • Gender

Audience Targeting – 22/11/2013

November 22, 2013

Assignment for 5th December: How have your chosen texts been constructed to appeal to their audiences

Key Concepts (MIGRAN)

Media Language

Target (Address)

  • Content
  • Appeal to the product – Uses & Gratifications

How do we know it’s an advert?

  • Length of the advertisement
  • Rapid editing

Genre’s audience

Comedy – Young
Romance – Female
Chick Flick – Teen Girls
Horror – Male 14 – 30
Action – Male 14 – 25

Audience Theory – 19/11/13

November 21, 2013

19TH November 2013

A2 Media Studies – Audience Theory

Audience > Targeted

                  > Effects/Uses and Gratifications

                  > Readings > Preferred

                                       > Negotiated

                                       > Oppositional

There are three theories of audience that we can apply to help us come to a better understanding about the relationship between texts and audience.

  1. The Effects Model or The Hypodermic Model (E.g. Gaming is thought to have an effect on people, usually younger boys behaviour, such as Grand Theft Auto).
  2. The Uses and Gratifications Model. (Personal Identity – Information – Entertainment – Social Identity)
  3. Reception Theory.
  • 1. The Effects Model

–          The consumption of media texts has an effect or influence upon the audience.

–          It is normally considered that this effect is negative.

–          Audiences are passive and powerless.

This model is also known as The Hypodermic Model.

–          Messages in the media are injected to the audience by the powerful syringe like media.

–          The audience is powerless to resist.

–          The media works like a drug and the audience is addicted.

–          It is often vulnerable people who often need protection from the violent media

Key evidence:

The Bobo doll experiment: a very controversial piece of media that apparently proved that children copy violent behaviour. An example is the film Childs Play 3 (Seed of Chucky) caused the murder of James Bulger in 1993.

1980’s – Videotapes.

1990’s – Videogames.

2000’s – Internet – A moral panic.

Moral Panic: an instance of public anxiety or alarm in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society.