Posts Tagged ‘film’

Regulation in television – Blog 30/01/2014, Robert Gray

February 10, 2014

Regulation in television


Watershed -> Adults past 9pm

More explicit adult material tends to be shows later around 10:30. However it is still allowed after the watershed.

The parental lock that some service providers use works as a watershed.

At the start of some programs and in the guide, offers consumer advice on programs.

This is also the case for advertising.

OFCOM – The independent regulator. (state regulator)

Specification of broadcast code.

Provides mandatory broadcast rules.

This covers :

  • Protection of under 18’s  (The law)
  • Harm and offence (no obscene)
  • Crime (glorification)
  • Religion (Blasphemy)
  • Sponsorship (limit what can be shown )
  • Elections (Has to be impartial)
  • Privacy (faces blurred & schools children’s feet shown)

Remember : All TV companies need a licence to broadcast.


For wider information see pages 44-53, Required.

Educate, inform as well as entertain.

BBC – Act as a cultural (e.g. Glastonbury ) moral (crime watch) and educative force.

ITV – They also have so PSB requirements however remember a commercial channels aim is maximise revenues and profits.

Channel 4 – Was set up to cater for minorities.

Their legal duty to:

  1. Educate, inform as well as entertain.
  2. Appeal to tastes not catered for by ITV.
  3. Encourage diversity and originality.

Channel 4 is no longer like it was but still does cater for minorities e.g. “The undateables”

Arguments for PSB:

  • BBC is able to put on niche programs, due to the licence fee otherwise certain programs would disappear e.g. The opera
  • Quality rather than ratings
  • Maintain principle of enlightened democracy
  • Continue the idea of a shared experience

Arguments against PSB:

  • Out dated
  • Irrelevant
  • Elitist
  • Restricts competition which could bring increased choice and ‘quality’


This offers:

  1. Protection for harmful exposure (remember – the effects debate)
  2. Infringement of privacy
  3. Unfair treatment
  4. People can complain – the right to defend themselves.

They can :

  • Direct a broadcaster not to repeat programs and advertisements
  • Direct to publish a correction
  • It can fine, shorten or revoke.

Ofcom have a compliance officer (lawyers)

The most recent code of broadcasting is from 2009.

It also operates taking this into account:

The human rights act à We have a right to know.

The BBC is regulated by Ofcom however it is also regulated by the BBC trust.

Relevant information

Key word: Adjunctions

Majestic TV – fined for breaking code (£12,500) – the debate, is this enough?



Types of Distribution

November 22, 2013

18th November

The is two types of distribution-

Blanket distribution– goes everywhere

Platform distribution– opens small and gradually gets bigger for example 12 Years Of Slaves started in 19 theatres and it is now in 14 hundred.

Platform release is usually used for indie films as they are a niche audience, and indie companies cannot afford to go worldwide.

Platform release is also used for the awards season for example the Oscars as the movie must of been released the previous year, so if the film is still in the cinemas it gives it a bigger advantage as it would be more familiar with audiences.

The Oscars as designed to market middle brow films, these are not simply entertainment but also through provoking.

-These films are harder to market than those aimed at mass audience

-Platform release also allows the creation of buzz (positive word of mouth)



-UK box office is similar to US but is smaller.

-UK box office is dominated by Hollywood

-Stars are fading

-People prefer special effects in Hollywood films- big budget means higher production.

-Low budget British films cannot compete except for The Kings Speech and The Inbetweeners.

Assignment– Does the ownership of your main texts effect how it is produced?

13th November- Film Platforms

November 18, 2013

1) Cinema

2) DVD/ Bluray – Retail
– Rental

Downloads, eg. Itunes/Apple TV  – Retail
– Rental

Normally both retail and rental but during Christmas period only retail

Normally 4 months until available for rent or retail
– occasionally longer eg. Iron Man 3 (waited to release at Christmas- 6 months after cinema)

3) Pay TV- SkyStore (can be available same time as stage 2)
– usually 6-12 months after cinema release
– Pacific Rim didn’t do as well as expected so on Pay TV earlier

4) Netflix/ LoveFilm – around 12 months after cinema

Subscription – Sky Movies etc.

5) ‘Free to air’ Tv – 2 years

A Field in England was released on  free TV (Film4), DVD and video-on-demand at the same time it was released in the cinema

BBC films for example, miss out stages 3 + 4

Thursday 10th October 2013- Where Do We Go Now?

October 10, 2013

The disruption in the film= religious schism

There is unity within their community because they all watch the TV together.

When the women are discussing religion, it is friendly banter “We’ve gained a Christian!”

Radio in the cafe is telling them about a civil war. The women are listening but the men aren’t. Amal (the waitress) turns over the radio station so it plays music so this doesn’t encourage the men to fight. Thankfully men aren’t listening anyway so the women are successful.

Men are childish- playing cards, fighting and playing table football

The TV is a narrative disruption because it causes an argument. The TV is a communal gathering however they all want to watch a different channel.

Women spend their time avoiding conflict. They are powerful but it is indirect because of the patriarchal society they live in. This shows how the patriarchy stops the women having a lot of power.

Comparing Where Do We Go Now? with The Source
– in where do we go now, the women are indirect
-in the source the women are direct because they tell the men what they are doing

The imam and the priest are the only men who are peacekeeping.

Only the women and children remain communal.

The Christians are Catholic because the Virgin Mary is a symbol of Catholisism

“You call yourself a man!” the woman uses gender as an insult rather than religion

Stars- 25th September 2013

September 30, 2013


  • marketing device
  • commodity – a product to be sold
  • persona – image that plays across texts – primary (film) secondary (chat shows, etc)
  • reduces the uniqueness of the film
  • gives the audience a clear idea of what to expect in the film
  • an object of desire
  • the meaning can shift (mean different things to different people – readings)
  • typecast – known for playing a certain type of role
  • some stars more typecast than others
  • can be difficult for starts to break out of it

Jim Carrey– trying to break out of his slapstick comedy persona with such films as The Number 23, I Love You Phillip Morris and The Majestic
wasn’t successful so he turned to  franchises- Anchorman 2, Kick-Ass 2 and Dumb and Dumber To

Stars who are starting to become less successful are likely to go back and make a squeal

A-List Stars- massive, open movies – Tom Cruise, Leonardo DiCaprio, Johnny Depp, Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie

B-List Stars- Vince Vaughn, Matt Damon, Cameron Diaz

  • Stars are usually attractive – erotic contemplation
  • one way relationship

TV Stars

  • David Tennant
  • John Hamm (Mad Men)
  • Ashley Walters? (Top Boy)

TV Stars have a circulating persona (chat shows, TV magazines, morning TV)

Holly Willoughby – TV presenters can be stars too
acts suitably for the program she is in therefore is a personality not a star because she doesn’t act the same (doesn’t have a persona)
Celebrity Juice, This Morning, The Voice

Soap Stars

  • Michelle Keegan (Coronation Street)
  • Steve McFadden (Eastenders)
  • Barbara Windsor (Eastenders)
  • Chris Fountain (Hollyoaks and Coronation Street)
  • Patsy Palmer (Eastenders)
  • Shane Riche (Eastenders)
  • Jesse Wallace (Eastenders)
  • Suranne Jones (Coronation Street)
  • Danny Mac (Hollyoaks)


Lesson – 16/09/2013 Media Studies Blog – Robert Gray

September 27, 2013


–          Ill manors is a British genre film which was initially released on May 30th , 2012, then on June 6th, 2012.

Marketing techniques for Ill manors

Posters – There were 8 different kinds of posters here are some examples:


Within the posters there were many marketing techniques such as the gun, which could represent action in the film directing it at 16-30 year old males.

Cross promotion – As a famous music artist Ben Drew aka. (Plan B) could easily cross promote his film. Close to the release of the film he released the album “ill manors”

The album included a lot of songs from the actual film, and singles in which their videos included characters from the film – however there was no actual footage from the film which was unusual.

Below is an example of the music video:

This album release can also be used as part of the publicity circus – as plan B appeared on many chat shows etc… to promote both the film and the album.

Another interesting point about this film is that the trailer:

this was only released a month before it came out – if we compare this to inception where a teaser trailer was released about a year before, you can see that inception was trying to create a “buzz” for the film and attract audiences.  Also within the trailer it was rapid montage this did not give a clear idea of the film, this was a weak point of the trailer.

Social media advertising was also a key element in in marketing the film:

Here we see Facebook, Twitter and an official website.

When thinking about defining the audience remember

*Genre can include and exclude at the same time*

When applying this to ill manors, you could say the film was aimed at 16-30 males due to the appearance of guns, and attractive women in the trailer; however you could also say it was aimed at a niche audience due to the complex storyline “We are all products of our environment”.


Take the BBC marketing for the apprentice:

The BBC has a huge core audience, and because they own the channel it doesn’t cost them to advertise, they can put the advert for the apprentice in-between their shows.

This is why they are in the strong position – they have a wide variety of audience and the power to easily advertise whenever they want.


They had two tasks:

  1. To get people to know about it.
  2. Get these people to watch it.

The fear was shown across 4 days, so they needed to grab the audience quickly.

Because it was shown across 4 days this meant there was less marketing opportunities, as they couldn’t advertise for a whole week until the next episode as they may usually do., it was also hard for them to promote catch up as people may not have enough free time to catch up on a day-to-day basis.